I say (eirhka). Perfect active indicative of eipon, "I have said." "To the Seer's mind the whole scene was still fresh and vivid" (Swete) like kekragen in John 1:15 and eilhpen in Revelation 5:7 , not the so-called "aoristic perfect" which even Moulton (Prol. p. 145) is disposed to admit. My lord (Kurie mou). "An address of reverence to a heavenly being" (Vincent), not an act of worship on John's part. Thou knowest (su oida). "At once a confession of ignorance, and an appeal for information" (Swete), not of full confidence like su oida in John 21:15 . They which come out of the great tribulation (oi ercomenoi ek th qlipsew th megalh). Present middle participle with the idea of continued repetition. "The martyrs are still arriving from the scene of the great tribulation" (Charles). Apparently some great crisis is contemplated ( Matthew 13:19 ; Matthew 24:21 ; Mark 13:10 ), though the whole series may be in mind and so may anticipate final judgment. And they washed (kai eplunan). First aorist active indicative of plunw, old verb, to wash, in N.T. only Luke 5:2 ; Revelation 7:14 ; Revelation 22:14 . This change of construction after oi ercomenoi from oi plunhsante to kai eplunan is common in the Apocalypse, one of Charles's Hebraisms, like kai epoihsen in Revelation 1:6 and kai planai in Revelation 2:20 . Made them white (eleukanan). First aorist active indicative of leukainw, to whiten, old verb from leuko (verse Revelation 13 ), in N.T. only here and Mark 9:3 . "Milligan remarks that robes are the expression of character and compares the word habit used of dress" (Vincent). The language here comes partly from Genesis 49:11 and partly from Exodus 19:10Exodus 19:14 . For the cleansing power of Christ's blood see als ( Romans 3:25 ; Romans 5:9 ; Colossians 1:20 ; Ephesians 1:7 ; 1 Peter 1:2 ; Hebrews 9:14 ; 1 John 1:7Revelation 1:5 ; Revelation 5:9 ; Revelation 22:14 . "The aorists look back to the life on earth when the cleansing was effected" (Swete). See Philippians 2:12 for both divine and human aspects of salvation. In the blood of the Lamb (en twi aimati tou arniou). There is power alone in the blood of Christ to cleanse from sin ( 1 John 1:7 ), not in the blood of the martyrs themselves. The result is "white," not "red," as one might imagine.